The Great Miseries of War 1633

Click here to enter exhibit
E154 - Frontispiece
E154 - Frontispiece
E154 - L'enrôlement des troupes (Enrolling the troops)
E154 - L'enrôlement des troupes (Enrolling the troops)
E154 - La bataille (The battle)
E154 - La bataille (The battle)
E154 - La maraude (The raid)
E154 - La maraude (The raid)
E154 - Le pillage (Pillaging a house)
E154 - Le pillage (Pillaging a house)
E154 - Dévastation d'un monastère (Looting a monastery)
E154 - Dévastation d'un monastère (Looting a monastery)
E154 - Pillage et incendie d'un village (Looting and burning a village)
E154 - Pillage et incendie d'un village (Looting and burning a village)
E154 - Vol sur les grandes routes (Highway robbery)
E154 - Vol sur les grandes routes (Highway robbery)
E154 - Découverte des malfaiteurs (Arrest of the offenders)
E154 - Découverte des malfaiteurs (Arrest of the offenders)
E154 - L'estrapade  (Strappado)
E154 - L'estrapade (Strappado)
E154 - La Pendaison (The Hanging)
E154 - La Pendaison (The Hanging)
E154 -  L'arquebusade (Firing squad)
E154 - L'arquebusade (Firing squad)
E154 - Le bûcher  (Burning at the stake)
E154 - Le bûcher (Burning at the stake)
E154 -  La roue (Breaking wheel)
E154 - La roue (Breaking wheel)
E154 - L'hôpital (The hospital)
E154 - L'hôpital (The hospital)
E154 - Les mendiants et les mourants (The beggars and the dying)
E154 - Les mendiants et les mourants (The beggars and the dying)
E154 -  La revanche des paysans (The peasants fight back)
E154 - La revanche des paysans (The peasants fight back)
E154 - Distribution des récompenses (Distribution of rewards)
E154 - Distribution des récompenses (Distribution of rewards)
E154 - Frontispiece
Image 1 of 18 Share
Image: 3660 | Size: 1275 x 600 px
E154 - L'enrôlement des troupes (Enrolling the troops)
Image 2 of 18 Share
Image: 3661 | Size: 5485 x 2510 px
E154 - La bataille (The battle)
Image 3 of 18 Share
Image: 3662 | Size: 5484 x 2454 px
E154 - La maraude (The raid)
Image 4 of 18 Share
Image: 3663 | Size: 5468 x 2437 px
E154 - Le pillage (Pillaging a house)
Image 5 of 18 Share
Image: 3664 | Size: 5490 x 2440 px
E154 - Dévastation d'un monastère (Looting a monastery)
Image 6 of 18 Share
Image: 3665 | Size: 5484 x 2427 px
E154 - Pillage et incendie d'un village (Looting and burning a village)
Image 7 of 18 Share
Image: 3666 | Size: 5473 x 2427 px
E154 - Vol sur les grandes routes (Highway robbery)
Image 8 of 18 Share
Image: 3667 | Size: 5479 x 2432 px
E154 - Découverte des malfaiteurs (Arrest of the offenders)
Image 9 of 18 Share
Image: 3668 | Size: 5444 x 2475 px
E154 - L'estrapade (Strappado)
Image 10 of 18 Share
Image: 3669 | Size: 1405 x 600 px
E154 - La Pendaison (The Hanging)
Image 11 of 18 Share
Image: 3677 | Size: 5446 x 2379 px
E154 - L'arquebusade (Firing squad)
Image 12 of 18 Share
Image: 3670 | Size: 1398 x 600 px
E154 - Le bûcher (Burning at the stake)
Image 13 of 18 Share
Image: 3671 | Size: 5466 x 2407 px
E154 - La roue (Breaking wheel)
Image 14 of 18 Share
Image: 3672 | Size: 5445 x 2430 px
E154 - L'hôpital (The hospital)
Image 15 of 18 Share
Image: 3673 | Size: 5441 x 2387 px
E154 - Les mendiants et les mourants (The beggars and the dying)
Image 16 of 18 Share
Image: 3674 | Size: 5434 x 2402 px
E154 - La revanche des paysans (The peasants fight back)
Image 17 of 18 Share
Image: 3675 | Size: 5467 x 2422 px
E154 - Distribution des récompenses (Distribution of rewards)
Image 18 of 18 Share
Image: 3676 | Size: 5452 x 2439 px
Dots 1

1
tomadmin
Nov 11 2022
0.5
0.37

The
Miseries And The
Misfortunes
Of War.
Represented by Jacques Callot
Noble from Lorraine
and put in light by Israel,
his friend,
in Paris 1633.
With privilege of the King

Dots 5

1
tomadmin
Nov 11 2022
0.69
0.4

This metal that Pluto in its veities locked, which makes at the same time, peace and war,

Draws the soldier, fearless of danger from the place of birth to foreign countries

**Where having embarked to flee the militia virtue must be armed against vice.

2
tomadmin
Nov 11 2022
0.38
0.4

This metal that Pluto in its veities locked, which makes at the same time, peace and war,

**Draws the soldier, fearless of danger from the place of birth to foreign countries

Where having embarked to flee the militia virtue must be armed against vice.

3
tomadmin
Nov 11 2022
0.07
0.4

**This metal that Pluto in its veities locked, which makes at the same time, peace and war,

Draws the soldier, fearless of danger from the place of birth to foreign countries

Where having embarked to flee the militia virtue must be armed against vice.

4
David
Nov 11 2022
0.91
0.28

States were unable to maintain large armies. Instead, they chose to enlist rapidly during time of war and outsource the enlistment to contractors. Money was often given up front to soldiers to help with enlistment.

Glete, Jan. War and the State in Early Modern Europe (Routledge, New York: 2002).

5
David
Nov 11 2022
0.15
0.27

Callot shows the orderly enlistment of men into the army to display the contrast of disorder and Chaos in battle on the next page.

https://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/p/pod/dod-idx/just-...

Dots 6

1
tomadmin
Nov 11 2022
0.03
0.39

**However harsh are the attacks of Mars, and the blows his arm carries on all sides,

It does not surprise the invincible courage of those whose value knows how to fight the storm

And who, to acquire the title of warriors, sprinkle their laurels with the blood of enemies

2
tomadmin
Nov 11 2022
0.67
0.39

However harsh are the attacks of Mars, and the blows his arm carries on all sides,

It does not surprise the invincible courage of those whose value knows how to fight the storm,

**And who, to acquire the title of warriors, sprinkle their laurels with the blood of enemies.

3
tomadmin
Nov 11 2022
0.35
0.39

However harsh are the attacks of Mars, and the blows his arm carries on all sides,

**It does not surprise the invincible courage of those whose value knows how to fight the storm,

And who, to acquire the title of warriors, sprinkle their laurels with the blood of enemies.

4
David
Nov 11 2022
0.71
0.22


Johann Anton Eismann "Battle" 1656.
A depiction of a cavalry attack shorty after the Thirty Years' War

https://www.hermitagemuseum.org/wps/portal/hermita...

5
David
Nov 11 2022
0.19
0.26

Wherein, the first engraving focused on order, the second engraving seen here draws attention to the disorder, violence and chaos of battle amongst the soldiers.


https://quod.lib.umich.edu/b/bulletinfront/0054307.0016.102/--just-violence-jacques-callots-grandes-miseres-et-malheurs-de?g=bulletin;rgn=main;view=fulltext;xc=1

6
David
Nov 11 2022
0.5
0.21

Callot uses the inclusion of smoke to show off his talents as an engraver.

https://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/p/pod/dod-idx/just-...

Dots 5

1
tomadmin
Nov 11 2022
0.69
0.39

These brave brutes in hostels, cover their robberies with the beautiful name of spoils;

They argue on purpose, enemies of any rest, in order to not pay their hosts, and will take even their pots,

**Thus of others’ possessions, their mood accommodates when they’ve been given many drinks, and served as they wish.

2
tomadmin
Nov 11 2022
0.36
0.39

These brave brutes in hostels, cover their robberies with the beautiful name of spoils;

**They argue on purpose, enemies of any rest, in order to not pay their hosts, and will take even their pots,

Thus of others’ possessions, their mood accommodates when they’ve been given many drinks, and served as they wish.

3
tomadmin
Nov 11 2022
0.03
0.39

**These brave brutes in hostels, cover their robberies with the beautiful name of spoils;

They argue on purpose, enemies of any rest, in order to not pay their hosts, and will take even their pots,

Thus of others’ possessions, their mood accommodates when they’ve been given many drinks, and served as they wish.

4
David
Nov 11 2022
0.85
0.19


Sebastien Vrancx, "The Looting of Wommelgem" (1625-1630)

Another artist's rendering of such a scenes of soldiers attacking civilians from the thirty years war.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sebastiaen_Vrancx

5
David
Nov 11 2022
0.35
0.26

*La Maraude (The Raid) displays the violence of soldiers upon villagers.

*Raids were not uncommon in the Thirty Years War and were used as a means to acquired food or carried out by soldiers after a battle uncontrolled by their officers.

Tallett, Frank. War and Society in Early Modern Europe: 1495-1715 (Routledge, London: 1992).


Dots 7

1
David
Nov 11 2022
0.13
0.2

The range of violence carried out by soldiers and civilians displays marital violence as a a series of encounters with no clear victim or foe.(1)


(1) https://quod.lib.umich.edu/b/bulletinfront/0054307.0016.102/--just-violence-jacques-callots-grandes-miseres-et-malheurs-de?g=bulletin;rgn=main;view=fulltext;xc=1

2
David
Nov 11 2022
0.46
0.11

Le Pillage (Pillaging a house) goes further to display the violence influcted upon civilians by soldiers during war.

https://quod.lib.umich.edu/b/bulletinfront/0054307.0016.102/--just-violence-jacques-callots-grandes-miseres-et-malheurs-de?g=bulletin;rgn=main;view=fulltext;xc=1

3
David
Nov 11 2022
0.63
0.28


Sebastian Vrancx "Soldiers Plundering a Farm during the Thirty Years' War" (1620).

A colored depiction of a similar scene as Callot's of the violence. Vrancx provides a less gruesome representation of the horror and misery that comes from the violence of war.

https://artsandculture.google.com/asset/soldiers-p...

4
tomadmin
Nov 11 2022
0.71
0.39

Here are the beautiful feats of these inhuman hearts, they ravage everywhere, nothing escapes their hand

One to have gold invents torments, the other with a thousand infamies animates his accomplices;

**And all of them, together, wickedly commit robbery, kidnapping, murder, and rape.

5
tomadmin
Nov 11 2022
0.39
0.39

Here are the beautiful feats of these inhuman hearts, they ravage everywhere, nothing escapes their hand

**One to have gold invents torments, the other with a thousand infamies animates his accomplices;

And all of them, together, wickedly commit robbery, kidnapping, murder, and rape.

6
tomadmin
Nov 11 2022
0.03
0.39

**Here are the beautiful feats of these inhuman hearts, they ravage everywhere, nothing escapes their hand

One to have gold invents torments, the other with a thousand infamies animates his accomplices;

And all of them, together, wickedly commit robbery, kidnapping, murder, and rape.

7
tomadmin
Nov 11 2022
0.08
0.17

This woman appears to be offering some money to the three men about to kill the man on his knees.

Dots 1

1
David
Nov 11 2022
0.62
0.17

Here, Callot seeks to show the prominence of material gain in violence's associated with war.
*The monastery burnings in the background, to the middle ground soldiers take advantage of a women while it is the foreground which holds centre stage the material goods taken from the raid.(1)

(1)https://quod.lib.umich.edu/b/bulletinfront/0054307.0016.102/--just-violence-jacques-callots-grandes-miseres-et-malheurs-de?g=bulletin;rgn=main;view=fulltext;xc=1

Dots 3

1
tomadmin
Nov 11 2022
0.68
0.39

Those whom Mars maintains with his wicked deeds thus treat the poor people of the fields

They take them prisoner, burn their villages, and even destroy their livestock,

**Without fearing the laws nor the duty, the tears and the cries do not touch them.

2
tomadmin
Nov 11 2022
0.37
0.39

Those whom Mars maintains with his wicked deeds thus treat the poor people of the fields

**They take them prisoner, burn their villages, and even destroy their livestock,

Without fearing the laws nor the duty, the tears and the cries do not touch them.

3
tomadmin
Nov 11 2022
0.02
0.39

**Those whom Mars maintains with his wicked deeds thus treat the poor people of the fields

They take them prisoner, burn their villages, and even destroy their livestock,

Without fearing the laws nor the duty, the tears and the cries do not touch them.

Dots 4

1
David
Nov 11 2022
0.35
0.2

Sebastiaen Vrancx "Assault on a Convoy c.1612

A depiction of a raid on a convoy.

https://www.khm.at/de/objektdb/detail/354

2
tomadmin
Nov 11 2022
0.66
0.39

Away from the forests, and lonely places, far from the military exercise and care,

These vile thieves live as murderers and their bloody arm only enjoys thievery

**So much they are possessed of a cruel desire to take away from the travelers their belongings and their life.

3
tomadmin
Nov 11 2022
0.32
0.39

Away from the forests, and lonely places, far from the military exercise and care,

**These vile thieves live as murderers and their bloody arm only enjoys thievery

So much they are possessed of a cruel desire to take away from the travelers their belongings and their life.

4
tomadmin
Nov 11 2022
0.03
0.4

**Away from the forests, and lonely places, far from the military exercise and care,

These vile thieves live as murderers and their bloody arm only enjoys thievery

So much they are possessed of a cruel desire to take away from the travelers their belongings and their life.

Dots 3

1
tomadmin
Nov 11 2022
0.7
0.4

After several excesses indignantly committed by these people of nothing, enemies of glory,

We look for them everywhere, with a lot of trouble, and the camp provost brings them back to the quarters,

In order to receive there, as they deserved, a punishment in accordance with their recklessness.

2
tomadmin
Nov 11 2022
0.36
0.4

After several excesses indignantly committed by these people of nothing, enemies of glory,

**We look for them everywhere, with a lot of trouble, and the camp provost brings them back to the quarters,

In order to receive there, as they deserved, a punishment in accordance with their recklessness

3
tomadmin
Nov 11 2022
0.04
0.4

**After several excesses indignantly committed by these people of nothing, enemies of glory,

We look for them everywhere, with a lot of trouble, and the camp provost brings them back to the quarters,

In order to receive there, as they deserved, a punishment in accordance with their recklessness

Dots 4

1
tomadmin
Nov 11 2022
0.69
0.38

It is not without reasons that the great captains, well advised, invented these punishments

Against the lazy and blasphemous traitors to their duty, quarrelsome and liars

**Their actions blinded by vice make those of others cowardly and deranged.

2
tomadmin
Nov 11 2022
0.38
0.38

It is not without reasons that the great captains, well advised, invented these punishments

**Against the lazy and blasphemous traitors to their duty, quarrelsome and liars

Their actions blinded by vice make those of others cowardly and deranged.

3
tomadmin
Nov 11 2022
0.03
0.38

**It is not without reasons that the great captains, well advised, invented these punishments

Against the lazy and blasphemous traitors to their duty, quarrelsome and liars

Their actions blinded by vice make those of others cowardly and deranged.

4
tomadmin
Nov 11 2022
0.5
0.05

The strappado, also known as corda, is a form of torture wherein the victim's hands are tied behind their back and suspended by a rope attached to the wrists, typically resulting in dislocated shoulders. Weights may be added to the body to intensify the effect and increase the pain. This kind of torture would generally not last more than an hour without rest, as it would likely result in death. Other names for strappado include "reverse hanging"...

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strappado

https://historycollection.com/20-facts-about-excru...

Dots 4

1
tomadmin
Nov 11 2022
0.68
0.38

In the end these vile and lost thieves, as miserable fruits hanging on this tree

Show that the crime (horrible and dark sort) is itself an instrument of shame and revenge

**And that it is the destiny of vicious men to experience sooner or later the justice of the heavens.

2
tomadmin
Nov 11 2022
0.34
0.38

In the end these vile and lost thieves, as miserable fruits hanging on this tree

**Show that the crime (horrible and dark sort) is itself an instrument of shame and revenge

And that it is the destiny of vicious men to experience sooner or later the justice of the heavens.

3
tomadmin
Nov 11 2022
0.03
0.38

**In the end these vile and lost thieves, as miserable fruits hanging on this tree

Show that the crime (horrible and dark sort) is itself an instrument of shame and revenge

And that it is the destiny of vicious men to experience sooner or later the justice of the heavens.

4
David
Nov 11 2022
0.52
0.07

Callot's scene La Pendaison (The Hanging) inspired the central image of William Hogarth's "The South Sea Scheme


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emblematical_Print_o...



Dots 4

1
tomadmin
Nov 11 2022
0.63
0.38

Those who, in order to obey their evil genius, fail in their duty, use tyranny,

Pleased only with evil that violates reason; and whose actions are full of treachery

**Generate in the camps a thousand bloody uproars, are thus punished and executed.

2
tomadmin
Nov 11 2022
0.33
0.38

Those who, in order to obey their evil genius, fail in their duty, use tyranny,

**Pleased only with evil that violates reason; and whose actions are full of treachery

Generate in the camps a thousand bloody uproars, are thus punished and executed.

3
tomadmin
Nov 11 2022
0.02
0.38

**Those who, in order to obey their evil genius, fail in their duty, use tyranny,

Pleased only with evil that violates reason; and whose actions are full of treachery

Generate in the camps a thousand bloody uproars, are thus punished and executed.

4
David
Nov 11 2022
0.33
0.13

Callot sought to depict the violence regardless our without focus on who was giving and who was receiving. This slide shows a solider being at the reciving end of violence carried out by other soldiers.

https://quod.lib.umich.edu/b/bulletinfront/0054307.0016.102/--just-violence-jacques-callots-grandes-miseres-et-malheurs-de?g=bulletin;rgn=main;view=fulltext;xc=1

Dots 3

1
admin
Nov 11 2022
0.66
0.39

Those enemies of heaven who sin a thousand times against the holy decrees and divine laws

Glorify in plundering and tearing down the temples of the true gods with an idolatrous hand;

**But as punishment for burning them they are themselves immolated in the flames

2
admin
Nov 11 2022
0.34
0.39

Those enemies of heaven who sin a thousand times against the holy decrees and divine laws

**Glorify in plundering and tearing down the temples of the true gods with an idolatrous hand;

But as punishment for burning them they are themselves immolated in the flames

3
admin
Nov 11 2022
0.02
0.39

**Those enemies of heaven who sin a thousand times against the holy decrees and divine laws

Glorify in plundering and tearing down the temples of the true gods with an idolatrous hand;

But as punishment for burning them they are themselves immolated in the flames

Dots 4

1
admin
Nov 11 2022
0.34
0.39

The ever-watchful eye of the divine Astraea banishes entirely the mourning of a land,

**While holding the sword, and the scales in hand, she judges and punishes the inhuman thief,

Who watches the passers-by, kills them and enjoys it, then himself becomes the plaything of the wheel.

2
admin
Nov 11 2022
0.65
0.39

The ever-watchful eye of the divine Astraea banishes entirely the mourning of a land,

While holding the sword, and the scales in hand, she judges and punishes the inhuman thief,

**Who watches the passers-by, kills them and enjoys it, then himself becomes the plaything of the wheel.

3
admin
Nov 11 2022
0.03
0.39

**The ever-watchful eye of the divine Astraea banishes entirely the mourning of a land,

While holding the sword, and the scales in hand, she judges and punishes the inhuman thief,

Who watches the passers-by, kills them and enjoys it, then himself becomes the plaything of the wheel.

4
tomadmin
Nov 11 2022
0.61
0.09

The breaking wheel or execution wheel, also known as the Catherine wheel or simply the Wheel, was a torture method used for public execution primarily in Europe from antiquity through the Middle Ages into the early modern period by breaking the bones of a criminal or bludgeoning them to death.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breaking_wheel

Dots 5

1
admin
Nov 11 2022
0.69
0.38

See what is the world and how many chances persecute with no end the children of the god Mars

Some are crippled and drag themselves on the Earth, the others luckier rise to the war

**Some on gallows die of a fatal blow and others leave the camp for the hospital

2
admin
Nov 11 2022
0.39
0.38

See what is the world and how many chances persecute with no end the children of the god Mars

**Some are crippled and drag themselves on the Earth, the others luckier rise to the war

Some on gallows die of a fatal blow and others leave the camp for the hospital

3
admin
Nov 11 2022
0.02
0.38

**See what is the world and how many chances persecute with no end the children of the god Mars

Some are crippled and drag themselves on the Earth, the others luckier rise to the war

Some on gallows die of a fatal blow and others leave the camp for the hospital

4
David
Nov 11 2022
0.17
0.23

The previous three engravings have shown punishment to soldiers. A striking element of Callot's work is that such images are followed immediately by images of suffering soldiers.

https://quod.lib.umich.edu/b/bulletinfront/0054307...

5
David
Nov 11 2022
0.32
0.26

Here can be seen the violence effect from war against those who fought.
*A series wounded men, wait at an office to receive help from the wounds inflicted upon them during war.

https://quod.lib.umich.edu/b/bulletinfront/0054307.0016.102/--just-violence-jacques-callots-grandes-miseres-et-malheurs-de?g=bulletin;rgn=main;view=fulltext;xc=1

Dots 4

1
admin
Nov 11 2022
0.35
0.39

How deplorable is the luck of the poor soldier ! When the war ends, his misfortune begins again;

**Then he is forced to go away shouting, and his begging makes the peasant laugh,

Who curses his manner, and considers it an insult to see the present object of the pains he endures.

2
admin
Nov 11 2022
0.02
0.39

**How deplorable is the luck of the poor soldier ! When the war ends, his misfortune begins again;

Then he is forced to go away shouting, and his begging makes the peasant laugh,

Who curses his manner, and considers it an insult to see the present object of the pains he endures.

3
David
Nov 11 2022
0.42
0.15

While there are those beggars who may receive help from hospitals and funds, many more found there fate here. Begging and dying along the side of a road.
*The violence' of war not only hurting them during the battle but, continues to inflict suffering upon those who received its violence..


https://artmuseum.princeton.edu/collections/object...

4
admin
Nov 11 2022
0.66
0.39

How deplorable is the luck of the poor soldier ! When the war ends, his misfortune begins again;

Then he is forced to go away shouting, and his begging makes the peasant laugh,

**Who curses his manner, and considers it an insult to see the present object of the pains he endures.

Dots 4

1
admin
Nov 11 2022
0.64
0.4

After many damages committed by the soldiers on the peasants, that they have for enemies

Keep an eye out for them and, by surprise, having put them to death put them in their shirt,

**And so they take revenge on these unfortunate people for the loss of their property, which only comes from them.

2
admin
Nov 11 2022
0.34
0.4

After many damages committed by the soldiers on the peasants, that they have for enemies

**Keep an eye out for them and, by surprise, having put them to death put them in their shirt,

And so they take revenge on these unfortunate people for the loss of their property, which only comes from them.

3
admin
Nov 11 2022
0.03
0.4

**After many damages committed by the soldiers on the peasants, that they have for enemies

Keep an eye out for them and, by surprise, having put them to death put them in their shirt,

And so they take revenge on these unfortunate people for the loss of their property, which only comes from them.

4
David
Nov 11 2022
0.25
0.19

After showing the violence upon soldiers by soldiers, the violence carried out against civilians and the suffering of soldiers from punishment's and war, Callot creates a dilemma, a pondering to a perceived rhetoric of his narrative. The civilians now take violence to the soldiers.

https://quod.lib.umich.edu/b/bulletinfront/0054307...

Dots 10

1
David
Nov 11 2022
0.5
0.02


King Philip IV & III of Spain and Portugal. Active in the Thirty Years' War.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_IV_of_Spain

2
admin
Nov 11 2022
0.69
0.39

This example of a grateful leader who punishes the wicked and rewards the good

Must prick the soldiers with a sting of honor, since on virtue depends all their happiness,

**And that usually they receive vice, shame, contempt, and the final torment

3
admin
Nov 11 2022
0.35
0.39

This example of a grateful leader who punishes the wicked and rewards the good

**Must prick the soldiers with a sting of honor, since on virtue depends all their happiness,

And that usually they receive vice, shame, contempt, and the final torment

4
admin
Nov 11 2022
0.02
0.39

**This example of a grateful leader who punishes the wicked and rewards the good

Must prick the soldiers with a sting of honor, since on virtue depends all their happiness,

And that usually they receive vice, shame, contempt, and the final torment

5
David
Nov 11 2022
0.58
0.13

The final engraving shows the king, his generals, and his minsters. All those who began the war and if able will prosper from the war without ever having received the violence of war.

*Many scholars since the publication of Callot's work have focused on the last engraving to give meaning to his narrative. However, contemporary scholarship still contends that Callot provides no clear class or national morality or message to his engravings. All may be at fault, all have suffered, all have played a role.

https://quod.lib.umich.edu/b/bulletinfront/0054307...

6
David
Nov 11 2022
0.55
0.02


Ferdinand II Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia. Of the Habsburg Dynasty a primary agitator of the war

7
David
Nov 11 2022
0.47
0.02

King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. Active in the Thirty Years' War.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustavus_Adolphus_of...

8
David
Nov 11 2022
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Frederick V, Elector Palatine during. An active in the Thirty Years' War

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_V_of_the_P...

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David
Nov 11 2022
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King Louis XIII. King of France during the Thirty years' war

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_XIII

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David
Nov 11 2022
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In contrast to the preceding images of violence and Chaos, this slide is to remind that royal order does not have the ability to prevent the quotidian problem of war.

https://quod.lib.umich.edu/b/bulletinfront/0054307.0016.102/--just-violence-jacques-callots-grandes-miseres-et-malheurs-de?g=bulletin;rgn=main;view=fulltext;xc=1

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